1356 - Edward "the Black Prince" began a raid north from Aquitaine.
1588 - The Spanish Armada was defeated by the English fleet ending an invasion attempt.
1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte set sail for St. Helena, in the South Atlantic. The remainder of his life was spent there in exile.
1899 - The refrigerator was patented by A.T. Marshall.
1940 - The German Luftwaffe began a series of daylight air raids on Great Britain.
1942 - Six Nazi saboteurs were executed in Washington after conviction. Two others were cooperative and received life in prison.
1945 - During World War II, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan.
1963 - The "Great Train Robbery" took place in Britain. A gang of 15 thieves stole 2.6 million pounds in bank notes.
1966 - Michael DeBakey became the first surgeon to install an artificial heart pump in a patient.
1978 - The U.S. launched Pioneer Venus II, which carried scientific probes to study the atmosphere of Venus.
1988 - It was announced that a cease-fire between Iraq and Iran had begun.
1991 - John McCarthy, a British TV producer was released by his Lebanese kidnappers. He had been held captive for more than five years.
1994 - The first road link between Israel and Jordan opened.