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1356 - Edward "the Black Prince" began a raid north from Aquitaine.

1588 - The Spanish Armada was defeated by the English fleet ending an invasion attempt.

1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte set sail for St. Helena, in the South Atlantic. The remainder of his life was spent there in exile.

1899 - The refrigerator was patented by A.T. Marshall.

1940 - The German Luftwaffe began a series of daylight air raids on Great Britain.

1942 - Six Nazi saboteurs were executed in Washington after conviction. Two others were cooperative and received life in prison.

1945 - During World War II, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan.

1963 - The "Great Train Robbery" took place in Britain. A gang of 15 thieves stole 2.6 million pounds in bank notes.

1966 - Michael DeBakey became the first surgeon to install an artificial heart pump in a patient.

1978 - The U.S. launched Pioneer Venus II, which carried scientific probes to study the atmosphere of Venus.

1988 - It was announced that a cease-fire between Iraq and Iran had begun.

1991 - John McCarthy, a British TV producer was released by his Lebanese kidnappers. He had been held captive for more than five years.

1994 - The first road link between Israel and Jordan opened.

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