0558 - The dome of the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople collapsed. It was immediately rebuilt as ordered by Justinian.
1274 - The Second Council of Lyons opened in France to regulate the election of the pope.
1429 - The English siege of Orleans was broken by Joan of Arc.
1525 - The German peasants' revolt was crushed by the ruling class and church.
1663 - The first Theatre Royal was opened in London.
1915 - The Lusitania, a civilian ship, was sunk by a German submarine. 1,198 people were killed.
1939 - Germany and Italy announced a military and political alliance known as the Rome-Berlin Axis.
1940 - Winston Churchill became British Prime Minister.
1942 - In the Battle of the Coral Sea, Japanese and American navies attacked each other with carrier planes. It was the first time in the history of naval warfare where two enemy fleets fought without seeing each other.
1943 - The last major German strongholds in North Africa, Tunis and Bizerte, fell to Allied forces.
1945 - Germany signed unconditional surrender ending World War II. It would take effect the next day.
1997 - A report released by the U.S. government said that Switzerland provided Nazi Germany with equipment and credit during World War II. Germany exchanged for gold what had been plundered or stolen. Switzerland did not comply with postwar agreements to return the gold.