1199 - English King Richard I was killed by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Chaluz in France.
1814 - Granted sovereignty in the island of Elba and a pension from the French government, Napoleon Bonaparte abdicates at Fountainebleau. He was allowed to keep the title of emperor.
1862 - The American Civil War Battle of Shiloh began in Tennessee.
1875 - Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent for the multiple telegraph, which sent two signals at the same time.
1896 - The first modern Olympic Games began in Athens, Greece.
1917 - The U.S. Congress approved a declaration of war on Germany and entered World War I on the Allied side.
1938 - The United States recognized the German conquest of Austria.
1941 - German forces invaded Greece and Yugoslavia.
1985 - William J. Schroeder became the first artificial heart recipient to be discharged from the hospital.