1791 - Britain's Observer newspaper was first published.
1812 - Peter Gaillard patented the power mower.
1942 - U.S. bombers attacked the Italian mainland for the first time during World War II.
1973 - Pioneer 10 reached Jupiter.
1979 - For the second time, the United Nations Security Council voted unanimously to urge Iran to free American hostages that had been taken on November 4.
1987 - Cuban inmates at a federal prison in Atlanta freed their 89 hostages, peacefully ending an 11-day uprising.
1991 - Pan American World Airways ceased operations.
1992 - U.S. President Bush ordered American troops to lead a mercy mission to Somalia.