1887 - Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek was born. He was the first constitutional President of the Republic of China.
1914 - The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joined the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria).
1922 - Benito Mussolini became prime minister of Italy.
1926 - Magician Harry Houdini died of gangrene and peritonitis resulting from a ruptured appendix.
1940 - The British air victory in the Battle of Britain prevented Germany from invading Britain.
1941 - Mount Rushmore was declared complete after 14 years of work. At the time the 60-foot busts of U.S. Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln were finished.
1952 - The U.S. detonated its first hydrogen bomb.
1961 - In the Soviet Union, the body of Joseph Stalin was removed from Lenin's Tomb where it was on public display.
1984 - Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated near her residence by two Sikh security guards. Her son, Rajiv, was sworn in as prime minister.
1998 - Iraq announced that it was halting all dealings with U.N. arms inspectors. The inspectors were investigating the country's weapons of mass destruction stemming from Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990.