1492 - King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain issued the Alhambra edict expelling Jews who were unwilling to convert to Christianity.
1779 - Russia and Turkey signed a treaty concerning military action in Crimea.
1889 - In Paris, the Eiffel Tower officially opened.
1900 - In France, the National Assembly passed a law reducing the workday for women and children to 11 hours.
1901 - In Russia, the Czar lashed out at Socialist-Revolutionaries with the arrests of 72 people and the seizing of two printing presses.
1921 - Great Britain declared a state of emergency because of the thousands of coal miners on strike.
1932 - The Ford Motor Co. debuted its V-8 engine.
1939 - Britain and France agreed to support Poland if Germany threatened invasion.
1941 - Germany began a counter offensive in North Africa.
1949 - Winston Churchill declared that the A-bomb was the only thing that kept the U.S.S.R. from taking over Europe.
1959 - The Dalai Lama began exile by crossing the border into India where he was granted political asylum.
1966 - The Soviet Union launched Luna 10, which became the first spacecraft to enter a lunar orbit.
1991 - Iraqi forces recaptured the northern city of Kirkuk from Kurdish guerillas.
1998 - U.N. Security Council imposed arms embargo on Yugoslavia.
2004 - Google Inc. announced that it would be introducing a free e-mail service called Gmail.