1519 - Leonardo da Vinci died.
1670 - The Hudson Bay Company was founded by England's King Charles II.
1776 - France and Spain agreed to donate arms to American rebels fighting the British.
1797 - A mutiny in the British navy spread from Spithead to the rest of the fleet.
1808 - The citizens of Madrid rose up against Napoleon.
1813 - Napoleon defeated a Russian and Prussian army at Grossgorschen.
1885 - The Congo Free State was established by King Leopold II of Belgium.
1885 - "Good Housekeeping" was first published.
1887 - Hannibal W. Goodwin applied for a patent on celluloid photographic film. This is the film from which movies are shown.
1926 - In India, Hindu women gained the right to seek elected office.
1926 - U.S. Marines landed in Nicaragua to put down a revolt and to protect U.S. interests. They did not depart until 1933.
1933 - Hitler banned trade unions in Germany.
1945 - Russians took Berlin after 12 days of fierce house-to-house fighting. The Allies announced the surrender of Nazi troops in Italy and parts of Austria.
1982 - The British submarine HMS Conqueror sank Argentina's only cruiser, the General Belgrano during the Falkland Islands War. More than 350 people died.
1994 - Nelson Mandela claimed victory after South Africa's first democratic elections.