31 B.C. - The Roman leader Octavian defeated the alliance of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian, as Augustus Caesar, became the first Roman emperor.
0490 - Phidippides of Athens was sent to seek help against the invading Persian Army. The runner was the inspiration for the 26-mile marathon of the Olympic Games in Athens in 1896.
1666 - The Great Fire of London broke out. The fire burned for three days destroying 10,000 buildings including St. Paul's Cathedral. Only 6 people were killed.
1945 - Ho Chi Minh declared the independence the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
1961 - The U.S.S.R. resumed nuclear weapons testing.
1969 - Ho Chi Minh died. He was the president of North Vietnam.
1991 - The U.S. formally recognized the independence of Lithuania, Lativa and Estonia.
1992 - The U.S. and Russia agreed to a joint venture to build a space station.