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1618 - Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded under a sentence that had been brought against him 15 years earlier for conspiracy against King James I.

1863 - The International Committee of the Red Cross was founded.

1923 - Turkey formally became a republic after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.

1929 - America's Great Depression began with the crash of the Wall Street stock market.

1956 - Israel invaded Egypt's Sinai Peninsula during the Suez Canal Crisis.

1991 - The U.S. Galileo spacecraft became the first to visit an asteroid (Gaspra).

1996 - An auction was held to sell the artwork that had been stolen by the Nazis during the German occupation of Austria during World War II.

1998 - South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission condemned both apartheid and violence committed by the African National Congress.

1998 - The space shuttle Discovery blasted off with John Glenn on board. Glenn was 77 years old. In 1962 he became the first American to orbit the Earth.

1998 - The oldest known copy of Archimedes' work sold for $2 million at a New York auction.

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