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1350 - While besieging Gibraltar, Alfonso XI of Castile died of the Black Death.

1794 - The U.S. Congress and President Washington authorized the creation of the U.S. Navy.

1802 - The Treaty of Amiens was signed ending the French Revolutionary War.

1860 - The corkscrew was patented by M.L. Byrn.

1899 - The first international radio transmission between England and France was achieved by the Italian inventor G. Marconi.

1900 - The London Parliament passed the War Loan Act that gave 35 million pounds to the Boer War cause in South Africa.

1900 - The Russian army mobilized 250,000 troops for active duty.

1931 - Actor Charlie Chaplin received France’s Legion of Honor decoration.

1933 - About 55,000 people staged a protest against Hitler in New York City.

1942 - The British raided the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France.

1944 - One-thousand Jews left Drancy, France, for the Auschwitz concentration camp.

1944 - Thousands of Jews were murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania.

1958 - The U.S. announced a plan to explore space near the moon.

1968 - Yuri Gagarin, the first man to orbit the earth, died in a plane crash.

1995 - Maurizo Gucci was shot to death outside his office in Milan.

1997 - Russian workers, nearly 2 million, held a nationwide strike to protest unpaid wages.

1998 - Top civilian aircraft makers in France, Spain, Germany and Britain agreed to create single European aerospace and defense company. 
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