1570 - England's Queen Elizabeth I was excommunicated by Pope Pius V.
1836 - Samuel Colt received a patent for a "revolving gun".
1930 - The bank check photographing device was patented.
1933 - The first aircraft carrier, Ranger, was launched.
1948 - Communists seized power in Czechoslovakia.
1972 - Germany gave a $5 million ransom to Arab terrorist who had hijacked a jumbo jet.
1986 - Filippino President Ferdinand E. Marcos fled the Philippines after 20 years of rule after a tainted election.