1848 - James W. Marshall discovered a gold nugget at Sutter's Mill in northern California. The discovery led to the gold rush of '49.
1888 - The typewriter ribbon was patented by Jacob L. Wortman.
1899 - Humphrey O’Sullivan patented the rubber heel.
1908 - In England, the first Boy Scout troop was organized by Robert Baden-Powell.
1916 - Conscription was introduced in Britain.
1924 - The Russian city of St. Petersburg was renamed Leningrad. The name has since been changed back to St. Petersburg.
1943 - U.S. President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill concluded a wartime conference in Casablanca, Morocco.
1965 - Winston Churchill died at the age of 90.
1978 - A nuclear-powered Soviet satellite plunged through Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated. The radioactive debris was scattered over parts of Canada's Northwest Territory.
1986 - The Voyager 2 space probe flew past Uranus. The probe came within 50,679 miles of the seventh planet of the solar system.
1990 - Japan launched the first probe to be sent to the Moon since 1976. A small satellite was placed in lunar orbit.