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42 B.C. - Marcus Junius Brutus committed suicide after his defeat at the Battle of Philippi. He was a leading conspirator in the assassination of Julius Caesar.

1942 - During World War II, the British began a major offensive against Axis forces at El Alamein, Egypt.

1944 - During World War II, the Battle of Leyte Gulf began.

1946 - The United Nations General Assembly convened in New York for the first time.

1958 - Russian poet and novelist Boris Pasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. He was forced to refuse the honor due to negative Soviet reaction. Pasternak won the award for writing "Dr. Zhivago".

1962 - During the Cuban Missile Crisis, the U.S. naval "quarantine" of Cuba was approved by the Council of the Organization of American States (OAS).

1978 - China and Japan formally ended four decades of hostility when they exchanged treaty ratifications.

1989 - Hungary became an independent republic, after 33 years of Soviet rule.

1992 - Japanese Emperor Akihito became the first Japanese emperor to stand on Chinese soil.

1995 - Russian President Boris Yeltsin and U.S. President Bill Clinton agree to a joint peacekeeping effort in the war-torn Bosnia.

1998 - Japan nationalized its first bank since World War II.


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