1485 - The War of the Roses ended with the death of England's King Richard III. He was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field. His successor was Henry V II.
1567 - The "Council of Blood" was established by the Duke of Alba. This was the beginning of his reign of terror in the Netherlands.
1572 - Earl of Northumberland was executed for treason in York, England.
1582 - King James VI was captured in the Ruthven raid while he was hunting.
1642 - The English Civil War began when Charles I called Parliament and its soldiers traitors.
1770 - Australia was claimed under the British crown when Captain James Cook landed there.
1775 - The American colonies were proclaimed to be in a state of open rebellion by England's King George III.
1846 - The U.S. annexed New Mexico.
1910 - Japan formally annexed Korea.
1911 - It was announced that Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" had been stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris. The painting reappeared two years later in Italy.
1932 - The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) began its first TV broadcast in England.
1941 - Nazi troops reached the outskirts of Leningrad during World War II.
1968 - Pope Paul VI arrived in Bogota, Colombia, for the start of the first papal visit to Latin America.
1972 - Due to its racial policies, Rhodesia was asked to withdraw from the 20th Olympic Summer Games.
2000 - It was announced that all 118 crewmembers aboard the Kursk submarine were dead. The Russian vessel had sunk on August 4.