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1349 - 3,000 Jews were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt Germany.

1556 - Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was burned at the stake at Oxford.

1804 - The French civil code, the Code Napoleon, was adopted.

1851 - Emperor Tu Duc ordered that Christian priests be put to death.

1851 - Yosemite Valley was discovered in California.

1859 - In Philadelphia, the first Zoological Society was formed.

1904 - The British Parliament vetoed a proposal to send Chinese workers to Transvaal.

1907 - The first Parliament of Transvaal met in Pretoria.

1908 - A passenger was carried in a bi-plane for the first time by Henri Farman of France.

1918 - During World War I, the Germans launched the Somme Offensive.

1941 - The last Italian post in East Libya, North Africa, fell to the British.

1945 - During World War II, Allied bombers began four days of raids over Germany.

1963 - Alcatraz Island, the federal penitentiary in San Francisco Bay closed.

1965 - The U.S. launched Ranger 9. It was the last in a series of unmanned lunar explorations.

1965 - More than 3,000 civil rights demonstrators led by the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. began a march from Selma to Montgomery.

1971 - Two U.S. platoons in Vietnam refused their orders to advance.

1980 - On the TV show Dallas, J.R. Ewing was shot.

1990 - Namibia became independent of South Africa.

1991 - The U.N. Security Council lifted the food embargo against Iraq.

1994 - Bill Gates of Microsoft and Craig McCaw of McCaw Cellular Communications announced a $9 billion plan that would send 840 satellites into orbit to relay information around the globe.

2001 - Nintendo released Game Boy Advance.

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