1818 - Simon Bolivar formally declared Venezuela independent of Spain.
1873 - Budapest was formed when the rival cities of Buda and Pest were united to form the capital of Hungary.
1889 - Astronomer Edwin Hubble was born. Hubble discovered and developed the concept of an expanding universe. In 1924 he proved the existence of galaxies other than our own.
1943 - During World War II, U.S. Marines began their landing on Tarawa and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands.
1945 - 24 Nazi leaders went before an international war crimes tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany.
1947 - Britain's Princess Elizabeth married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh in Westminster Abbey.
1959 - Britain, Norway, Portugal, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark and Sweden met to create the European Free Trade Association.
1962 - The Cuban Missile Crisis ended.
1975 - After nearly 40 years of absolute rule Spain's General Francisco Franco died.
1990 - Saddam Hussein ordered another 250,000 Iraqi troops into the country of Kuwait.
1992 - A fire seriously damaged the northwest side of Windsor Castle in England.