0096 - Vespasian, a Roman Army leader, was hailed as a Roman Emperor by the Egyptian legions.
1543 - England and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich.
1596 - An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere captured and sacked Cadiz, Spain.
1690 - The French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
1798 - Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt.
1863 - During the U.S. Civil War, the first day's fighting at Gettysburg began.
1867 - Canada became an independent dominion.
1916 - The massive Allied offensive known as the Battle of the Somme began in France. The battle was the first to use tanks.
1942 - German troops captured Sevestpol, Crimea, in the Soviet Union.
1946 - The U.S. exploded a 20-kiloton atomic bomb near Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.
1961 - British troops landed in Kuwait to aid against Iraqi threats.
1969 - Britain's Prince Charles was invested as the Prince of Wales.
1979 - Sony introduced the Walkman.
1991 - The Warsaw Pact dissolved.
1997 - The sovereignty over Hong Kong was transferred from Great Britain to China. Britain had controlled Hong Kong as a colony for 156 years.