1815 - Napoleon began serving his exile when he arrived at the island of St. Helena.
1835 - Solyman Merrick patented the wrench.
1877 - F.P. Cahill became the first person to be killed by "Billy the Kid."
1939 - The movie "Wizard of Oz" opened.
1943 - The Allied conquest of Sicily was completed as U.S. and British forces entered Messina.
1961 - The Communist East German government completed the construction of the Berlin Wall.
1962 - 18-year-old Peter Fechter was killed by East German border guards when he attempted to cross the Berlin Wall into the western sector.
1987 - Rudolph Hess died after apparently committing suicide. Hess was the last member of Adolf Hitler's inner circle.