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15th

1821 - Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador proclaimed independence.

1916 - During the Battle of the Somme, in France, tanks were first used in warfare when the British rolled them onto the battlefields.

1917 - Alexander Kerensky proclaimed Russia to be a republic.

1928 - Alexander Fleming discovered the antibiotic penicillin in the mold Penicillium notatum.

1935 - The Nuremberg Laws were enacted by Nazi Germany. The act stripped all German Jews of their civil rights and the swastika was made the official symbol of Nazi Germany.

1940 - The German Luftwaffe suffered the loss of 185 planes in the Battle of Britain. The change in tide forced Hitler to abandon his plans for invading Britain.

1961 - The U.S. resumed underground testing of nuclear weapons.

1971 - Greenpeace was founded.

1990 - France announced that it would send an additional 4,000 soldiers to the Persian Gulf. They also expelled Iraqi military attaches in Paris.

1998 - Ayatollah Ali Khamenei ordered the Iranian military to be on full alert and massed troops on its border with Afghanistan.

 

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