1223 - In France, Louis VIII succeeded his father, Philip Augustus.
1430 - Joan of Arc was handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.
1456 - Hungarians defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Belgrade.
1536 - France and Portugal signed the naval treaty of Lyons, which aligned them against Spain.
1789 - French Revolution began with Parisians stormed the Bastille prison and released the seven prisoners inside.
1868 - Alvin J. Fellows patented the tape measure.
1900 - European Allies retook Tientsin, China, from the rebelling Boxers.
1914 - Robert H. Goddard patented liquid rocket-fuel.
1933 - All German political parties except the Nazi Party were outlawed.
1940 - A force of German Ju-88 bombers attacked Suez, Egypt, from bases in Crete.
1958 - The army of Iraq overthrew the monarchy.
1965 - The American space probe Mariner 4 flew by Mars, and sent back photographs of the planet.
2001 - Beijing was awarded the 2008 Olympics. It was the first time that the China had been awarded the games.