1096 - Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Sofia, Bulgaria. There they met their Byzantine escort, which brought them safely the rest of the way to Constantinople. by August 1.
1543 - England's King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr.
1690 - Protestant forces led by William of Orange defeated the Roman Catholic army of James II.
1691 - William III defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
1806 - The Confederation of the Rhine was established in Germany.
1862 - The U.S. Congress authorized the Medal of Honor.
1941 - Moscow was bombed by the German Luftwaffe for the first time.
1957 - The U.S. surgeon general, Leroy E. Burney, reported that there was a direct link between smoking and lung cancer.
1960 - The first Etch-A-Sketch went on sale.
1982 - "E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial" broke all box-office records by surpassing the $100-million mark of ticket sales in the first 31 days of its opening.
1990 - Russian republic president Boris N. Yeltsin announced his resignation from the Soviet Communist Party.
1998 - In Ballymoney, Northern Ireland, three young brothers were burned to death in an arson attack while they slept.