1877 - The two moons of Mars were discovered by Asaph Hall, an American astronomer. He named them Phobos and Deimos.
1909 - The American ship Arapahoe became the first to ever use the SOS distress signal off the coast of Cape Hatteras.
1934 - Alcatraz, in San Francisco Bay, received federal prisoners for the first time.
1941 - The Atlantic Charter was signed by U.S. President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
1942 - During World War II, Pierre Laval publicly announced "the hour of liberation for France is the hour when Germany wins the war."
1945 - The Allies informed Japan that they would determine Emperor Hirohito's future status after Japan's surrender.
1956 - Abstract artist Jackson Pollack died in an automobile accident in East Hampton,New York
1990 - Egyptian and Moroccan troops joined U.S. forces in Saudia Arabia to help protect from a possible Iraqi attack.
1995 - All U.S. nuclear tests were banned by President Clinton.
2003 - In Kabul, NATO took command of the 5,000-strong peacekeeping force in Afghanistan.