1777 - During the American Revolution the second Battle of Saratoga began.
1949 - The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was formed.
1963 - U.S. President Kennedy signed a nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union.
1989 - In Budapest, Hungary's Communist Party renounced Marxism in favor of democratic socialism.
2001 - The U.S. and Great Britain began airstrikes in Afghanistan in response to that state's support of terrorism and Osama bin Laden. The act was the first military action taken in response to the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11, 2001.