1471 - In England, the Yorkists defeated the Landcastrians at the battle of Tewkesbury in the War of the Roses.
1493 - Alexander VI divided non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal.
1626 - Dutch explorer Peter Minuit landed on Manhattan Island. Native Americans later sold the island (20,000 acres) for $24 in cloth and buttons.
1776 - Rhode Island declared its freedom from England two months before the Declaration of Independence was adopted.
1795 - Thousands of rioters entered jails in Lyons, France, and massacre 99 Jacobin prisoners.
1814 - Napoleon Bonaparte disembarked at Portoferraio on the island of Elba in the Mediterranean.
1916 - Germany agreed to limit its submarine warfare after a demand from U.S. President Wilson.
1930 - Mahatma Gandhi was arrested by the British.
1979 - Margaret Thatcher became Britain's first woman prime minister.
2000 - Londoners elected their mayor for the first time.