1460 - At the Battle of Wakefield, in England's Wars of the Roses, the Duke of York was defeated and killed by the Lancastrians.
1880 - The Transvaal was declared a republic. Paul Kruger became its first president.
1922 - The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was formed.
1924 - Edwin Hubble announced the existence of other galactic systems.
1972 - The United States halted its heavy bombing of North Vietnam.
1993 - Israel and the Vatican established diplomatic relations.