1537 - Pope Paul III banned the enslavement of Indians.
1793 - Maximillian Robespierre initiated the "Reign of Terror". It was an effort to purge those suspected of treason against the French Republic.
1818 - The British army defeated the Maratha alliance in Bombay, India.
1910 - Charles Stewart Roll became the first person to fly across the English Channel.
1946 - Italians voted by referendum to form a republic instead of a monarchy.
1953 - Elizabeth was crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey.
1966 - Surveyor 1, the U.S. space probe, landed on the moon and started sending photographs back to Earth of the Moon's surface. It was the first soft landing on the Moon.
1979 - Pope John Paul II arrived in his native Poland on the first visit by a pope to a Communist country.
1999 - In South Africa, the African National Congress (ANC) won a major victory. ANC leader Thabo Mbeki was to succeed Nelson Mandela as the nation's president.