1452 - Richard III was born. He married the widow of the Prince of Wales and then imprisoned his mother-in-law for life.
1492 - King Henry VII of England invaded France.
1780 - British army major John Andre was hanged as a spy. He was carrying information about the actions of Benedict Arnold.
1836 - Charles Darwin returned to England after 5 years of acquiring knowledge around the world about fauna, flora, wildlife and geology.
1869 - Mahatma (Mohandas) K Gandhi was born. He was known for his advocacy of non-violent resistance to fight tyranny.
1870 - Rome was made the capital of Italy.
1924 - The Geneva Protocol adopted the League of Nations.
1940 - During World War II, the HMS Empress was sunk while carrying child refugees from Britain to Canada.
1941 - Operation Typhoon was launched by Nazi Germany. The plan was an all-out offensive against Moscow.
1944 - The Nazis crushed the Warsaw Uprising.
1947 - The Federatino Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) formally established Formula One racing in Grand Prix competition.
1989 - In Leipzig, East Germany a protest took place demanding the legalization of opposition groups and the adoption of democratic reforms.
1990 - The Allies ceded their rights to areas they occupied in Germany.
1998 - About 10,000 Turkish soldiers cross into northern Iraq and attacked Kurdish rebels.
2001 - NATO, for the first time, invoked a treaty clause that stated that an attack on one member is an attack on all members. The act was in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States.