1296 - The Scots were defeated by Edward I at the Battle of Dunbar.
1509 - Pope Julius II excommunicated the Italian state of Venice.
1521 - Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines.
1880 - Francis Clarke and M.G. Foster patented the electrical hearing aid.
1909 - The sultan of Turkey, Abdul Hamid II, was overthrown.
1937 - German bombers devastated Guernica, Spain.
1946 - The SS African Star was placed in service. It was the first commercial ship to be equipped with radar.
1950 - South Africa passed the Group Areas Act, which formally segregated races.
1961 - The United Kingdom granted Sierra Leone independence.
1965 - "Pampers" were patented by R.C. Duncan.
1984 - In London, Libyan gunmen left the Libyan Embassy 11 days after killing a policewoman and wounding 10 others.
1989 - Student protestors took over Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
1992 - Russia and 12 other former Soviet republics won entry into the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.