1350 - While besieging Gibraltar, Alfonso XI of Castile died of the Black Death.
1794 - The U.S. Congress and President Washington authorized the creation of the U.S. Navy.
1802 - The Treaty of Amiens was signed ending the French Revolutionary War.
1860 - The corkscrew was patented by M.L. Byrn.
1899 - The first international radio transmission between England and France was achieved by the Italian inventor G. Marconi.
1900 - The London Parliament passed the War Loan Act that gave 35 million pounds to the Boer War cause in South Africa.
1900 - The Russian army mobilized 250,000 troops for active duty.
1931 - Actor Charlie Chaplin received France’s Legion of Honor decoration.
1933 - About 55,000 people staged a protest against Hitler in New York City.
1942 - The British raided the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France.
1944 - One-thousand Jews left Drancy, France, for the Auschwitz concentration camp.
1944 - Thousands of Jews were murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania.
1958 - The U.S. announced a plan to explore space near the moon.
1968 - Yuri Gagarin, the first man to orbit the earth, died in a plane crash.
1995 - Maurizo Gucci was shot to death outside his office in Milan.
1997 - Russian workers, nearly 2 million, held a nationwide strike to protest unpaid wages.
1998 - Top civilian aircraft makers in France, Spain, Germany and Britain agreed to create single European aerospace and defense company.