1703 - The Methuen Treaty was signed between Portugal and England, giving preference to the import of Portuguese wines into England.
1831 - Charles Darwin set out on a voyage to the Pacific aboard the HMS Beagle. Darwin's discoveries during the voyage helped him form the basis of his theories on evolution.
1927 - Leon Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party.
1949 - Queen Juliana of the Netherlands granted sovereignty to Indonesia after more than 300 years of Dutch rule.
1978 - Spain adopted a new constitution and became a democracy after 40 years of dictatorship.
2001 - U.S. President George W. Bush granted China permanent normal trade status with the United States.
2002 - North Korea ordered U.N. nuclear inspectors to leave the country and said that it would restart a laboratory capable of producing plutonium for nuclear weapons.
2002 - In Chechnya, at least 40 people were killed when suicide bombers attacked the administartion of Grozny.