1641 - Scotland and Britain signed the Treaty of Pacification.
1741 - Danish navigator Vitus Jonas Bering discovered Alaska.
1866 - It was formally declared by U.S. President Andrew Johnson that the American Civil War was over. The fighting had stopped months earlier.
1882 - Tchaikovsky's "1812 Overture" debuted in Moscow.
1914 - German forces occupied Brussels, Belgium, during World War I.
1918 - The British opened its Western Front offensive during World War I.
1940 - France fell to the Germans during World War II.
1953 - It was announced by the Soviet Union that they had detonated a hydrogen bomb.
1968 - The Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact nations began invading Czechoslovakia to crush the "Prague Spring" liberalization.
1977 - Voyager 2 was launched by the United States. The spacecraft was carrying a 12 inch copper phonograph record containing greetings in dozens of languages, samples of music and sounds of nature.
1988 - Eight British soldiers were killed by a landmine while in a military bus in Northern Ireland. The mine belonged to the Irish Republican Army.
1989 - In London, a pleasure boat sank in the Thames River killing 51 people.
1998 - U.S. military forces attacked a terrorist camp in Afghanistan and a chemical plant in Sudan. Both targets were chosen for cruise missile strikes due to their connection with Osama bin Laden.
1998 - The U.N. Security Council extended trade sanctions against Iraq for blocking arms inspections.