1498 - Christopher Columbus landed on "Isla Santa" (Venezuela).
1774 - Oxygen was isolated from air successfully by chemist Carl Wilhelm and scientist Joseph Priestly.
1818 - Maria Mitchell was born. She was the first female professional astronomer and the first women to be elected into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
1834 - Slavery was outlawed in the British Empire with an emancipation bill.
1893 - Shredded wheat was patented by Henry Perky and William Ford.
1914 - Germany declared war on Russia at the beginning of World War I.
1936 - Adolf Hitler presided over the Olympic Games as they opened in Berlin.
1944 - In Warsaw, Poland, an uprising against Nazi occupation began. The revolt continued until October 2 when Polish forces surrendered.
1975 - The Helsinki accords pledged the signatory nations to respect human rights.