1155 - Frederick I Barbarossa was crowned emperor of Rome.
1429 - French forces defeated the English at the battle of Patay. The English had been retreating after the siege of Orleans.
1812 - The War of 1812 began as the U.S. declared war against Great Britain. The conflict began over trade restrictions.
1815 - At the Battle of Waterloo Napoleon was defeated by an international army under the Duke of Wellington.
1817 - London's Waterloo Bridge opened. The bridge, designed by John Rennie, was built over the River Thames.
1915 - During World War I, the second battle of Artois ended.
1953 - Egypt was proclaimed to be a republic with General Neguib as its first president.
1979 - In Vienna, U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) 2.