0064 - The Great Fire of Rome began.
1536 - The authority of the pope was declared void in England.
1789 - Robespierre, a deputy from Arras, France, decided to back the French Revolution.
1812 - Great Britain signed the Treaty of Orebro, making peace with Russia and Sweden.
1872 - The Ballot Act was passed in Great Britain, providing for secret election ballots.
1935 - Ethiopian King Haile Selassie urged his countrymen to fight to the last man against the invading Italian army.
1936 - The Spanish Civil War began as Gen. Francisco Franco led an uprising of army troops based in Spanish North Africa.
1944 - Hideki Tojo was removed as Japanese premier and war minister due to setbacks suffered by his country in World War II.
1971 - New Zealand and Australia announced they would pull their troops out of Vietnam.