1521 - Martin Luther confronted the emperor Charles V in the Diet of Worms and refused to retract his views that led to his excommunication.
1791 - National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.
1937 - Leon Trotsky called for the overthrow of Soviet leader Josef Stalin.
1946 - The League of Nations was dissolved.
1949 - The Republic of Ireland was established.
1955 - Albert Einstein died.
1980 - Rhodesia became in independent nation of Zimbabwe.
1989 - Thousands of Chinese students demanding democracy tried to storm Communist Party headquarters in Beijing.