1212 - The Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade.
1453 - France defeated England at Castillon, France, which ended the 100 Years' War.
1762 - Peter III of Russia was murdered. Catherine II the Great took the throne.
1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte surrendered to the British at Rochefort, France.
1821 - Spain ceded Florida to the U.S.
1917 - The British royal family adopted the Windsor name.
1955 - Disneyland opened in the U.S.
1966 - Ho Chi Minh ordered a partial mobilization of North Vietnam forces to defend against American air strikes.
1998 - Nicholas II, the last of Romanov czars, was buried in Russia 80 years after he and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks.
1998 - An entire village was swept away in Papua New Guinea by a 23-foot wave that was triggered by an undersea earthquake. Eight days later the government reported that 1,500 people were dead, 2,000 were missing and thousands were homeless.