0069 - Otho committed suicide after being defeated by Vitellius' troops at Bedriacum.
0556 - Pelagius I began his reign as Catholic Pope.
1065 - The Norman Robert Guiscard took Bari. Five centuries of Byzantine rule in southern Italy ended.
1175 - Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, signed the Treaty of Montebello with the Lombard League.
1705 - Queen Anne of England knighted Isaac Newton.
1746 - The Duke of Cumberland defeated Bonnie Prince Charlie (and his Jacobites) at the battle of Culloden.
1912 - Harriet Quimby became the first woman to fly across the English Channel.
1917 - Vladimir Ilyich Lenin returned to Russia to start Bolshevik Revolution after years of exile.
1945 - American troops entered Nuremberg, Germany.
1953 - The British royal yacht Britannia was launched.
1972 - Apollo 16 blasted off on a voyage to the moon. It was the fifth manned moon landing.
1975 - The Khmer Rouge Rebels won control of Cambodia after five years of civil war. They renamed the country Kampuchea and began a reign of terror.
1982 - Queen Elizabeth proclaimed Canada's new constitution in effect. The act severed the last colonial links with Britain.