1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte began his exile on the remote island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.
1844 - German philosopher Friedich Wilhelm Nietzsche was born.
1917 - Mata Hari was executed by a French firing squad. Hari was a Dutch dancer that had spied for Germany.
1945 - Pierre Laval, the former premier of Vichy France, was executed for treason.
1946 - Hermann Goering, a Nazi war criminal and founder of the Gestapo, poisoned himself just hours before his scheduled execution.
1962 - The Cuban Missile Crisis began. It was on this day that U.S. intelligence personnel analyzing data discovered Soviet medium-range missle sites in Cuba. On October 22 U.S. President John F. Kennedy announced that he had ordred the naval "quarantine" of Cuba.
1964 - It was announced that Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had been removed from power. He was replaced with Alexei N. Kosygin.
1998 - The U.N. condemned the U.S. economic embargo on Cuba for the seventh year in a row.
2001 - NASA's Galileo spacecraft passed within 112 miles of Jupiter's moon Io.