1248 - The rebuilding of the Cologne Cathedral in Cologne, Germany, began after being destroyed by fire.
1900 - An international force, consisting of eight nations, lifted the siege of Peking. It was an end to the Boxer Rebellion, which was aimed at purging China of foreigners.
1917 - China declared war on Germany and Austria during World War I.
1941 - U.S. President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill issued the Atlantic Charter. The charter was a statement of principles that renounced aggression.
1945 - It was announced by U.S. President Truman that Japan had surrendered unconditionally. The surrender ended World War II.
1947 - Pakistan became independent from British rule.
1969 - British troops arrived in Northern Ireland to intervene in sectarian violence between Protestants and Roman Catholics.
1981 - Pope John Paul II left a Rome hospital. He had been there for three months following an assassination attempt.
1997 - Timothy McVeigh was formally sentenced to death for the Oklahoma City bombing.
2000 - A Russian submarine Kursk sank to the bottom of the Barrent Sea. There were 118 sailors on the nuclear-powered vessel.