1099 - The Crusaders launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.
1534 - The Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
1558 - Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France.
1643 - In England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, were defeated by royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
1793 - French revolutionary writer Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday. She was executed four days later.
1878 - The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers.
1941 - Britain and the Soviet Union signed a mutual aid pact that provided the means for Britain to send war material to the Soviet Union.
1954 - In Geneva, the United States, Great Britain and France reached an accord on Indochina which divided Vietnam into two countries, North and South, along the 17th parallel.