1805 - Johann George Lehner, a Viennese butcher, invented a recipe and called it the "frankfurter."
1850 - Robert Louis Stevenson was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He is best known for Treasure Island and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
1985 - About 23,000 residents of Armero, Colombia, died when a gigantic mudslide buried the city. The slide was triggered by a mild eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano.
1994 - Sweden voted to join the European Union.
1997 - Iraq expelled six U.N. arms inspectors that were U.S. citizens.
2001 - U.S. President George W. Bush signed an executive order that would allow for military tribunals to try any foreigners captured with connections to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. It was the first time since World War II that a president had taken such action.