1099 - Crusade leaders visited the Mount of Olives where they met a hermit who urged them to assault Jerusalem.
1442 - Alfonso V of Aragon was crowned King of Naples.
1667 - The first human blood transfusion was administered by Dr. Jean Baptiste.
1812 - Napoleon's invasion of Russia began.
1849 - The gas mask was patented by L.P. Haslett.
1897 - Carl Elsener patented his penknife. The object later became known as the Swiss army knife.
1900 - The Reichstag approved a second law that would allow the expansion of the German navy.
1923 - Harry Houdini, while suspended upside down 40 feet above the ground, escaped from a strait jacket.
1926 - Brazil quit the League of Nations in protest over plans to admit Germany.
1929 - Anne Frank was born in Germany. She wrote in her diary about growing up in occupied Amsterdam during World War II.