0330 - Constantinople, previously the town of Byzantium, was founded.
1573 - Henry of Anjou became the first elected king of Poland.
1689 - French and English naval battle takes place at Bantry Bay.
1745 - French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army at Fontenoy.
1792 - The Columbia River was discovered by Captain Robert Gray.
1812 - British prime Minster Spencer Perceval was shot by a bankrupt banker in the lobby of the House of Commons.
1857 - Indian mutineers seized Delhi from the British.
1860 - Giuseppe Garibaldi landed at Marsala, Sicily.
1944 - A major offensive was launched by the allied forces in central Italy.
1949 - Siam changed its name to Thailand.
1960 - Israeli soldiers captured Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires.
1995 - The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty was extended indefinitely. The treaty limited the spread of nuclear material for military purposes.
1998 - India conducted its first underground nuclear tests, three of them, in 24 years. The tests were in violation of a global ban on nuclear testing.
1998 - A French mint produced the first coins of Europe's single currency. The coin is known as the euro.